After completing the course, the student is expected to know the most important theories and discussions on what science is and how scientific research is carried out. The student will have a theoretical basis for doing science in an adequate end ethically defendable way; reflect on his or her own practice, and be able to contribute to ongoing discussions on problems of science, including ethical problems.
Philosophical questions of science, epistemology, and ontology. Rationalism and empiricism. Modern and postmodern criticism of empiricism and the defence of rationality. Natural science vs. human and social sciences. Phenomenology. The role of language in science. Foundations of ethics and the ethics of scientific research. Selected cases from the history of science and science today.