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Ingrid Espegren Dalsmo

Ingrid Espegren Dalsmo
Master's Programme in Clinical Health Science
Fakultet for helse- og idrettsvitenskap
28. juni 2017

School drop-outs and health-promotion campaigns in Tanga-region, Tanzania

In combining health-promotion campaigns to the community and empowering school drop outs, it seems that HAMA has made a win-win situation. They who are empowered are both school-children, residents in the villages, and youth that participate.

School drop-outs and health-promotion campaigns in Tanga-region, Tanzania


According to Tanzania Human Development Report 2014 both income/consumption and development indicators clearly show that levels of poverty in Tanzania are high, and almost 50% of the population are under 15 years old (UNDP, 2014). The UN`s 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development claims that poverty in all its forms and dimensions, is the greatest global challenge. Eradication of poverty is an indispensable requirement for sustainable development (UN, 2015). Hatua na Maendeleo (HAMA) is a Tanzanian non-governmental organisation that collaborates with the local government to reach the UN sustainable goals in the surrounding area of Tanga.


HAMA runs, through a holistic approach, 11 programs supported by the mother-organisation Tanga International Competence Centre (TICC). The organization aims to improve the conditions for the poorest of the poor. “Hatua na maendeleo” means “steps for development”. HAMA believe that in order to make a change you have to do it step by step, or «pole pole» as they say in Kiswahili.


One of HAMAs target groups is school drop-outs. The youth involved have some tuition and work with different topics and tasks approximately one year. Through this work they are encouraged and helped to finish their education, or to start a vocational training after approximately one year in the program. One of the tasks is to participate in health-promotion campaign which is one of the other programs of HAMA. Different campaigns are conducted to increase the community’s knowledge about health-related issues. These campaigns are held at local schools and in villages, and the youth use their qualities and strength in acting, music and dance.


The level of gender equality and women’s empowerment have increased in recent decades. Nevertheless, gender equality remains a persistent challenge for countries worldwide and the lack of such equality is a major obstacle to sustainable development. Globally, in 2013, one in 10 girls were not in school, compared to one in 12 boys (UN, 2016). Based on this the master thesis will concentrate on the girls that are involved in the campaign work.


In combining these two projects: health-promotion campaigns to the community and empowering school drop outs, it seems that HAMA has made a win-win situation. They who are empowered are both school-children, residents in the villages, and youth that participate.


The main aim of this master thesis is to explore how school drop-outs experience being a part of the health-promotion campaigns.


Data collection will start with participant observations at different health-promotion campaigns both at schools and in villages. To learn more about HAMAs programs there will be conducted in-depths interviews with two key informants who work at HAMA. Furthermore, two focus groups interviews with six girls in each group will be conducted.


The study will explore if and how the involvement in health-promotion campaigns might have an impact on the girls’ coping strategies and empowerment, and the continuation of their education. There will also be a focus on if and how the involvement increases their own health-awareness, and thereby enable them to support themselves and others in health-related issues.


The University in Agder has for many years collaborated with TICC mainly with student exchange in the program of Bachelor in Nursing. UiA is now expanding this collaboration to include research. The funding from “Students in Research Project” was used for a study trip to Tanga in March 2017. One more study trip will be conducted in October 2017 to collect data both through field observation, key informant interviews and focus group interviews. Thereafter a new blog-post will be posted on this website.


I would like to express my gratitude both to UiA and to HAMA/TICC for giving me the opportunity to write a master thesis about an interesting and important topic. The UN empathizes that health-promotion, education and empowerment for and of women are all part of the goals that will help ending poverty (UN, 2015). This master thesis will touch on all these three topics.



If you want to read more about HAMA and TICCs work, here are their websites:

-        https://ticchama.wordpress.com/

-        http://www.meetingpointtanga.net/






UNDP (2014) Tanzania Human Development Report 2014. Retrieved 21.03.17 from http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/thdr2014-main.pdf


UN (2015) Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Retrieved 21.03.17 from https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/post2015/transformingourworld


UN (2016) Report of the Secretary-General, Progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals. Retrieved 19.03.17 from E/2016/75