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Our group is engaged in a wide range of research work. This covers modeling and experimental investigations of both fundamental and industrial problems of thermal energy and bioenergy. Main focus:

  • Biomass characterization, treatment, and applications.
  • Biochar for metallurgical applications
  • Hydrothermal liquefaction for bio-oil production
  • Process modeling and CFD modeling 
  • Green heat applications: Geothermal Heat pump, wood/pellet, or solar heating system. 
  • Energy efficiency, indoor climate, and sustainability of buildings


Current projects:


Project owner - Project - Role - Funder

2024- 2027

BioSiMS: BioCarbon for Silicon and MicroSilica Quality, Elkem ASA, Technology, 15 mio.kr.


BioProMet: Biomaterialer for grønn produksjon av metaller gjennomføres av Future Materials partner Elkem ASAEyde Cluster og Universitetet i Agder (UiA)


Investigating the viability of using a special blend of bioethanol and castor oil in the internal combustion engines, RFF Agder, 650k NOK


Collaborative Action for improving educational capacities in Renewable Energy to mitigate the climate crisis(CARE).  Project manager, DIKU


Use of CO2 as a Coolant for Microsystems (CO2-COM), Partner, The Royal Society, UK.


Knowledge for improving indoor air quality and health (K-HEALTHinAIR), Partner, Horizon Europe


2021 – 2023

Optimalisert Produksjonsprosess av biokarbon for bruk som reduksjonsmateriale i silisiumproduksjon (OptBioCar) Partner, Norges forskningsråd

2019- 2025

CERN- Two-phase CO2 cooling system for the CMS Detector at CERN. – Project leader from UiA- CERN, University of Bath, University of Agder


Fundacion CARTIF: K-HEALTHinAIR Knowledge for improving indoor AIR quality and HEALTH / Leading researcher / RIA Horizon Europe


Elkem ASA: OptBioCar (Optimized Production Process and Biocarbon Product for use as Silicon reduction material) / Work package leader / Innovation Project for the Industrial Sector, Norwegian research council.


Moland DC:  Trebasert, sirkulært og modulært datasenter med funksjonalitet for innsamling av spillvarme. FORREGION-projekt Vestfold-Telemark


Otraparken AS: Konseptutredning for innovative energi- og klimaløsninger til Otraparkens nye bygg. Enova



Ongoing Phd-projects:

  • Diani Indrachapa Muhandiram: Coupling Hydrodynamic Cavitation (HDC) and Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) processes for the co-production of biofuels and biomaterials.
  • Prokhorskii Gleb : Predictive maintenance of technical equipment and subsystems in biomass power plants. 
  • Nils Randulf Kristiansen: Elektrisitetsproduksjon fra spillvarme på skip
  • Haidar Hosamo: A BIM and IoT integration in support of decision making for optimizing building performance and energy management
  • Javad Darvishi: Indoor Climate and  Cross Laminated Timber (CLT)
  • Hilde Nordby Falkenhaug: Inneklima og helse (Indoor climate and health).
  • Jouvan Chandra Pratama Putra: Inneklima og helse (Indoor climate and health)


Previous projects

  • Biomass characterization with University College of Southeast Norway (2013-2015)
  • Measurement techniques for combustible gases with University College of Southeast Norway (2013-2015)
  • Moisture and ash in short rotation coppice willow with Aarhus university (2011-2015)
  • CO2 capture using algae with Elkem, NIVA (2012-2016)
  • Production of energy crops, 3000 m² with willow, reed canary grass, Mischanthus giganteus, poplar and sorrel (2002-2012)
  • CHP and energy saving with Alloc (2010)
  • Biomass and bioenergy for regional research funds – The Research Council of Norway (2010-2011)

Research partners

  • Professor Lasse Rosendahl and Assistant Professor Saqib Toor, Department of energy technology, Aalborg university, Denmark
  • Professor Matthias Ahlhaus, Hochschule Stralsund – University of applied sciences, Germany
  • Senior researcher Poul Erik Lærke and senior researcher Uffe Jørgensen, Department of Agroecology - Climate and Water, Aarhus university, Denmark
  • Associate Professor DR.IR. D.W.F. Brilman (Wim), University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands.
  • Professor Carsten Rode, Department of Environmental and Resource Engineering, Materials & Durability, DTU
  • Associate Professor Kjeld Svidt, BUILD Aalborg university 
  • Dr. Mauro Carnevale, Lecturer, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bath. 

Selected publications

  • Nielsen, Henrik Kofoed; Vehus, Tore; Rudra, Souman; Kristiansen, Nils Randulf (2022). Chapter 9 - Biomass production, storage, and pretreatment for the production of solid biofuels. Biofuels and Biorefining Volume 1: Current Technologies for Biomass Conversion. ISBN: 9780128241165. Elsevier. s 339 - 380.
  • Hosamo, Haidar; Svennevig, Paul Ragnar; svidt, kjeld; Han, Daguang; Nielsen, Henrik Kofoed (2022). A Digital Twin predictive maintenance framework of air handling units based on automatic fault detection and diagnostics. Energy and Buildings. ISSN: 0378-7788. 261doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2022.111988.
  • Hosamo, Haidar; Imran, Aksa; Cardenas, Juan Diego; Svennevig, Paul Ragnar; svidt, kjeld; Nielsen, Henrik Kofoed (2022). A Review of the Digital Twin Technology in the AEC-FM Industry. Advances in Civil Engineering. ISSN: 1687-8086. 2022doi:10.1155/2022/2185170.
  • Jayathilake, Madhawa; Rudra, Souman; Akhtar, Naureen; Christy, Alfred Antony (2021). Characterization and Evaluation of Hydrothermal Liquefaction Char from Alkali Lignin in Subcritical Temperatures. Materials. ISSN: 1996-1944. 14 (11). doi:10.3390/ma14113024.
  • Jayathilake, Madhawa; Rudra, Souman; Christy, Alfred Antony (2021). Effect of co-liquefaction of lignin and laminaria saccharina on optimization of bio-oil yield. Energy Conversion and Management: X. doi:10.1016/j.ecmx.2021.100151.
  • Rudra, Souman; Jayathilake, Madhawa (2021). Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass for Biofuel Production. Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences. ISBN: 9780124095489. Elsevier. chapter.
  • Jayathilake, Madhawa; Rudra, Souman; Rosendahl, Lasse A. (2021). Numerical modeling and validation of hydrothermal liquefaction of a lignin particle for biocrude production. Fuel. ISSN: 0016-2361. 305doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2021.121498.
  • Riva, Lorenzo; Wang, Liang; Ravenni, Giulia; Bartocci, Pietro; Videm Buø, Therese; Skreiberg, Øyvind; Fantozzi, Francesco; Nielsen, Henrik Kofoed (2021). Considerations on factors affecting biocarbon densification behavior based on a multiparameter model. Energy. ISSN: 0360-5442. doi:10.1016/j.energy.2021.119893.
  • Jayathilake, Madhawa; Rudra, Souman; Rosendahl, Lasse A. (2020). Hydrothermal liquefaction of wood using a modified multistage shrinking-core model. Fuel. ISSN: 0016-2361. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2020.118616.
  • Rudra, Souman; Tesfagaber, Yohannes Kifle (2019). Future district heating plant integrated with municipal solid waste (MSW) gasification for hydrogen production. Energy. ISSN: 0360-5442. 180s 881 - 892. doi:10.1016/j.energy.2019.05.125.
  • Riva, Lorenzo; Surup, Gerrit Ralf; Buø, Therese Videm; Nielsen, Henrik Kofoed (2019). A study of densified biochar as carbon source in the silicon and ferrosilicon production. Energy. ISSN: 0360-5442. 181s 985 - 996. doi:10.1016/j.energy.2019.06.013.
  • Riva, Lorenzo; Nielsen, Henrik Kofoed; Skreiberg, Øyvind; Wang, Liang; Bartocci, Pietro; Barbanera, Marco; Bidini, Gianni; Fantozzi, Francesco (2019). Analysis of optimal temperature, pressure and binder quantity for the production of biocarbon pellet to be used as a substitute for coke. Applied Energy. ISSN: 0306-2619. 256s 1 - 16. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.113933.
  • Surup, Gerrit Ralf Nielsen, Henrik Kofoed Heidelmann, Markus Trubetskaya, Anna (2018). Characterization and reactivity of charcoal from high temperature pyrolysis (800–1600 °C). Fuel. ISSN: 0016-2361. 235s 1544 - 1554. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2018.08.092
  • Surup, Gerrit Ralf Vehus, Tore Eidem, Per-Anders Trubetskaya, Anna Nielsen, Henrik Kofoed (2019). Characterization of renewable reductants and charcoal-based pellets for the use in ferroalloy industries. Energy. ISSN: 0360-5442. 167s 337 - 345. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2018.10.193
  • Surup, Gerrit Ralf Foppe, Manuel Schubert, Daniel Deike, Rüdiger Heidelmann, Markus Timko, Michael T. Trubetskaya, Anna (2018). The effect of feedstock origin and temperature on the structure and reactivity of char from pyrolysis at 1300–2800 °C. Fuel. ISSN: 0016-2361. 235s 306 - 316. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2018.07.093
  • Jayathilake, Rukshan Rudra, Souman (2017). Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Equivalence Ratio (ER) and Feedstock Particle Size on Birchwood Gasification. Energies. ISSN: 1996-1073. doi:10.3390/en10081232.
  • Rudra Souman, Rosendahl Lasse, Techno-economic analysis of a local district heating plant under fuel flexibility and performance (2016). Energy Efficiency ISSN 1570-646X. s - doi: 10.1007/s12053-016-9475-2
  • Sarker Shiplu, Thermochemical gasification of local lignocellulosic biomass via fixed-bed and fluidized-bed reactors (2016). Doctoral dissertations at University of Agder;131. AURA: http://hdl.handle.net/11250/2390851
  • Sarker Shiplu, Nielsen Henrik Kofoed, Preliminary fixed-bed downdraft gasification of birch woodchips (2015). International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology . ISSN 1735-1472. 12 (7), s 2119 - 2126 doi: 10.1007/s13762-014-0618-8
  • Sarker Shiplu, Nielsen Henrik Kofoed, Assessing the gasification potential of five woodchips species by employing a lab-scale fixed-bed downdraft reactor (2015). Energy Conversion and Management ISSN 0196-8904. 103 s 801 - 813 doi: 10.1016/j.enconman.2015.07.022
  • Sarker Shiplu, Arauzo Jesus, Nielsen Henrik Kofoed, Semi-continuous feeding and gasification of alfalfa and wheat straw pellets in a lab-scale fluidized bed reactor (2015). Energy Conversion and Management ISSN 0196-8904. 99 s 50 - 61 doi: 10.1016/j.enconman.2015.04.015
  • Nielsen Henrik Kofoed, Lærke Poul Erik, Liu Na, Jørgensen Uffe, Sampling procedure in a willow plantation for estimation of moisture content (2015).Biomass & Bioenergy ISSN 0961-9534. 78 s 62 - 70 doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2015.03.028
  • Sarker Shiplu, Bimbela Fernando, Sanchez Jose Luis, Nielsen Henrik Kofoed, Characterization and pilot scale fluidized bed gasification of herbaceous biomass: A case study on alfalfa pellets (2015). Energy Conversion and Management ISSN 0196-8904. 91 s 451 - 458 doi:10.1016/j.enconman.2014.12.034
  • Rudra Souman Process analysis of a biomass-based quad-generation plant for combined power, heat, cooling, and synthetic natural gas production (2015). Energy Conversion and Management ISSN 0196-8904. 106 s 1276 - 1285 doi: 10.1016/j.enconman.2015.10.072
  • Liu Na, Nielsen Henrik Kofoed, Jørgensen Uffe, Lærke Poul Erik, Sampling procedure in a willow plantation for chemical elements important for biomass combustion quality (2014). Fuel ISSN 0016-2361. (142), s 283 - 288 doi: doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2014.11.020
  • Sarker Shiplu, Nielsen Henrik Kofoed, Preliminary fixed-bed downdraft gasification of birch wood chips (2104). International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology . ISSN 1735-1472. (june), s - doi: 10.1007/s13762-014-0618-8
  • Horn Svein Jarle, Estevez Maria Magdalena, Nielsen Henrik Kofoed, Linjordet Roar, Eijsink Vincent, Biogas production and saccharification of Salix pretreated at different steam explosion conditions (2011).Bioresource Technology ISSN 0960-8524. 102 (17), s 7932 - 7936 doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2011.06.042
  • Sarker Shiplu, Møller Henrik Bjarne, Bruhn Annette, Influence of variable feeding on mesophilic and thermophilic co-digestion of Laminaria digitata and cattle manure (2014). Energy Conversion and Management ISSN 0196-8904. 87 s 513 - 520 doi:10.1016/j.enconman.2014.07.039
  • Sarker Shiplu, Møller Henrik Bjarne, Regulating feeding and increasing methane yield from co-digestion of C5 molasses and cattle manure (2014). Energy Conversion and Management ISSN 0196-8904. 84 s 7 - 12 doi: 10.1016/j.enconman.2014.03.082
  • Sarker Shiplu, Møller Henrik Bjarne, Boosting biogas yield of anaerobic digesters by utilizing concentrated molasses from 2nd generation bioethanol plant (2013). The International Journal of Energy and Environment ISSN 2076-2895. 4 (2), s 199 - 210
  • Rudra Souman, Rosendahl Lasse, Kumar Amit, Development of net energy ratio and emission factor for quad-generation pathways (2014). Energy Systems, Springer Verlag ISSN 1868-3967. doi:10.1007/s12667-014-0126-4
  • Rudra Souman, Rosendahl Lasse, Hoffmann Jessica, Conceptual design of an integrated hydrothermal liquefaction and biogas plant for sustainable bioenergy production (2013). Bioresource Technology ISSN 0960-8524. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2012.11.051

Research facilities

Analytical instruments: 

  • Heating Microscope, 1750 °C , Hesse Instruments HR18
  • Online producer gas analysis CO, CO2, CH4, H2, O2, ABB Advance Optima AO2000
  • Portable chilled mirror hygrometer for determination of dew point, Omega RHB-1500-C
  • Gas chromatograph, Varian
  • Micro gas chromatograph, Varian
  • Adiabatic bomb calorimeter for measuring the calorific value, Sanyo Gallenkamp
  • Elemental analyzer C, H and N, PerkinElmer 2400 Series II System
  • Thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA).  Mettler Toledo TGA/DSC1
  • Heated muffle furnace for measuring the ash content, 1100 °C, Nabertherm LT 40/11/330
  • Drying oven for measurement of moisture content, Termaks
  • Flue gas analysis CO, O2, flue gas temperature and draught, Testo 327-1
  • Measurement of moisture content by means of conductivity, Testo 606-1
  • Measurement of moisture content capacitive, Testo 635-1
  • 2 food calorimeters for teaching, from skolebutik.dk
  • Thermocouples for measuring flue gas temperature etc. with Digitron 2029T
  • 3 pallet scales 1500 kg, Scaleit FM pallet scale
  • Scales 

Laboratory equipment:

  • Hydrothermal Liquefaction Rig for biofuel production. Keison (SBL-2D) sand bath, High-pressure reactors(24ml, 65ml)
  • Biofuel boiler for firewood, wood pellets, grain, and wood chips. CN25 boiler assembled with CN250 stoker with oxygen control and a 250 litre fuel hopper. Manufactured by CN maskinfabrik A/S
  • Wood pellet stove, 6 kW Wodtke Smart, with electric ignition, hopper capacity 25 kg. Manufactured by Wodtke
  • Fireplace, 2.5 meters wide, for testing include biomass cooking stoves for developing regions
  • Dryer for wood and straw
  • Briquette press, 45 mm briquettes. Comafer Mythos
  • Hammer Mill, ARP-Safe Model 100 (located in room C1 100)
  • Gas and oil furnaces, 100 kW, for teaching, with see-through glass and adjustable fuel and air nozzles. Older model from the company P.A. Hilton Engineers Ltd. (located in room C1 100)
  • A Calibrated Hotbox for Testing Window Systems etc. Determination of heat transmission (U-value)
  • Complete heat pump system with heat emitters
  • Blower door for determination of airtightness of buildings
  • Photobioreactor system for algae production
  • Solar thermal collector located at ROOFTOP ENERGY TEST PLATFORM


Members in the group

Associate members

  • Britt Margrethe Emilie Moldestad, professor, University of South-Eastern Norway
  • Lars-André Tokheim, associate professor, University of South-Eastern Norway
  • Rune Bakke, professor, University of South-Eastern Norway
  • Marianne Sørflaten Eikeland, associate professor, University of South-Eastern Norway

Former employees:

  • Magne Våge, Associate Professor
  • Paul Arentzen, Associate Professor
  • Turid Knutsen, Associate Professor
  • Shiplu Sarker, PhD Research Fellow
  • Gerrit Ralf Surup, PhD Research Fellow
  • Taimur Akhter, PhD Research Fellow
  • Lorenzo Riva, PhD Research Fellow
  • Madhawa Jayathilake,  PhD Research Fellow