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The interdisciplinary Sports Performance and Athlete Development Environments (SPADE) research group will strive to develop and maintain a continuous research portfolio with strong international impact connected to the following missions:

Research Excellence: Conduct nationally and internationally recognized research with high impact focusing on:

  • Developing continuous, longitudinal data capture programs with our talent development partners regionally and nationally
  • Integration of methodological approaches, qualitative and quantitative, descriptive and experimental, to better understand complex aspects of athlete development environments
  • Maximizing ecological and external validity by closely interacting with developmental environments when developing research initiatives

Ongoing projects

  • The FUEL study – a practice-orientated nutrition intervention for female endurance athletes for the management of relative energy deficiency in sport. An international multicenter study aiming to develop, implement and evaluate a digital intervention for female endurance athletes with relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S). The study is in cooperation with Olympiatoppen, Linnaeus University, Sport Ireland Institute, and Technical University of Munich.  
    • Read the first publication based on the screening phase of the FUEL study investigating associations between relative energy deficiency, disordered eating, exercise addiction and food intolerance here.
  • The relationship between physical performance and external load match performance – A research project investigating the importance of physical fitness and the relationship to match performance, measured through wearable tracking systems. The projects include team sport players from ice-hockey and soccer.
    • Read the first study, exploring the external load performance between official and simulated game play in highly trained youth players, here.
  • Optimize in-season strength training for elite team-sport athletes. The project will explore how to program strength training during the competitive season to develop and maintain muscle size, strength, power, and match freshness. We will summarize the available evidence and compare the effect of heavy load strength training versus power- and ballistic training programs, with an emphasis on female handball athletes.

Selected publications


Byrkjedal, Per Thomas; Luteberget, Live; Bjørnsen, Thomas; Ivarsson, Andreas; Spencer, Matthew.
Simulated Game-Based Ice Hockey Match Design (Scrimmage) Elicits Greater Intensity in External Load Parameters Compared With Official Matches. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living 2022 ;Volum 4. s. -

Halvari, Anne Elisabeth M.; Ivarsson, Andreas; Halvari, Halgeir; Dahl, Kari Elisabeth; Olafsen, Anja Hagen; Solstad, Bård Erlend; Deci, Edward; Williams, Geoffrey Colin.
Dental hygienists’ biopsychosocial beliefs and giving autonomy support in treatment of patients: A self-determination theory perspective. International Journal of Dental Hygiene 2022 ;Volum 20.(2) s. 193-202

Haugen, Tommy; Sandbakk, Øyvind; Seiler, Stephen; Tønnessen, Espen.
The Training Characteristics of World-Class Distance Runners: An Integration of Scientific Literature and Results-Proven Practice. Sports Medicine - Open 2022 ;Volum 8.(1) s. 1-18

Schei, Gaute Sørensen; Haugen, Tommy; Jones, Gareth; Sæther, Stig Arve; Høigaard, Rune.
A Qualitative Exploration of Collective Collapse in a Norwegian Qualifying Premier League Soccer Match—The Successful Team's Perspective. Frontiers in Psychology 2022 ;Volum 12. s. -

Lindberg, Kolbjørn Andreas; Lohne-Seiler, Hilde; Fosstveit, Sindre Herskedal; Sibayan, Erlend E.; Fjeller, Joachim S.; Løvold, Sondre; Kolnes, Tommy; Vårvik, Fredrik Tonstad; Berntsen, Sveinung; Paulsen, Gøran; Seynnes, Olivier R.; Bjørnsen, Thomas.
Effectiveness of individualized training based on force–velocity profiling on physical function in older men. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports 2022 s. -

Giske, Rune; Gjerde, Joar; Høigaard, Rune; Johansen, Bjørn Tore.
Shared Mental Models: National Representative Coaches’ Thinking on Importance, Characteristics, and Development. Journal of Expertise 2022 ;Volum 5(1). s. 12-28

Hem, Marchus; Fuhre, Jan; Høigaard, Rune; Sæther, Stig Arve.
Talent development abroad. Young football players’ experiences and challenges on being recruited to English academies. Soccer and Society 2022

Sundgot-Borgen, Christine; Mathisen, Therese Fostervold; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn.
Explanations for use of dietary- and muscle enhancing dietary supplements among university students. A national cross-sectional study.. BMC Nutrition 2022

Svantorp-Tveiten, Kethe M.E.; Ivarsson, Andreas; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Sundgot-Borgen, Christine; Mathisen, Therese Fostervold; Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Rosenvinge, Jan H; Friborg, Oddgeir; Pettersen, Gunn; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn.
The Healthy Body Image intervention and reduction in eating disorder symptomatology and muscle building supplement use in high school students: a study of mediating factors. Frontiers in Psychology 2022

Henselmans, Menno; Bjørnsen, Thomas; Hedderman, Richie; Vårvik, Fredrik Tonstad.
The Effect of Carbohydrate Intake on Strength and Resistance Training Performance: A Systematic Review. Nutrients 2022

Bjørnsen, Thomas; Wernbom, Mathias; Paulsen, Gøran; Berntsen, Sveinung; Brankovic, Robert; Stålesen, Håkon; Sundnes, Joakim; Raastad, Truls.
Frequent blood flow restricted training not to failure and to failure induces similar gains in myonuclei and muscle mass. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports 2021 ;Volum 31.(7) s. 1420-1439

Bjørnsen, Thomas; Wernbom, Mathias; Paulsen, Gøran; Markworth, James F.; Berntsen, Sveinung; D'Souza, Randall F.; Cameron-Smith, David; Raastad, Truls.
High-frequency blood flow-restricted resistance exercise results in acute and prolonged cellular stress more pronounced in type I than in type II fibers. Journal of applied physiology 2021 ;Volum 131.(2) s. 643-660

Wiig, Håvard; Cumming, Kristoffer Toldnes; Handegard, Vilde; Stabell Hansen, Jostein; Spencer, Matthew; Raastad, Truls. 
Muscular heat shock protein response and muscle damage after semi-professional football match. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports 2022 ;Volum 32.(6) s. 984-996

Ausland, Ådne; Sandberg, Edvard Liljedahl; Jortveit, Jarle; Seiler, Stephen. 
Heart rhythm assessment in elite endurance athletes: A better method?. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living 2022 ;Volum 4. s. 1-9

Foster, Carl; Barroso, Renato; Beneke, Ralph; Bok, Daniel; Boullosa, Daniel; Casado, Arturo; Chamari, Karim; Cortis, Cristina; De Koning, Jos; Fusco, Andrea; Haugen, Thomas André; Lucia, Alejandro; Mujika, Inigo; Pyne, David; Rodriguez-Marroyo, Jose A.; Sandbakk, Øyvind; Seiler, Stephen. 
How to Succeed as an Athlete: What We Know, What We Need to Know. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance (IJSPP) 2022 ;Volum 17.(3) s. 333-334

Foster, Carl; Casado, Arturo; Esteve-Lanao, Jonathan; Haugen, Tommy; Seiler, Stephen. 
Polarized Training Is Optimal for Endurance Athletes. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 2022 ;Volum 54.(6) s. 1028-1031

Fahrenholtz, Ida Lysdahl; Melin, Anna Katarina; Wasserfurth, Paulina; Stenling, Andreas; Logue, Danielle; Garthe, Ina; Koehler, Karsten; Gräfnings, Maria; Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Madigan, Sharon; Torstveit, Monica Klungland. 
Risk of Low Energy Availability, Disordered Eating, Exercise Addiction, and Food Intolerances in Female Endurance Athletes. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living 2022 ;Volum 4. s. –

Lundy, Bronwen; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Stenqvist, Thomas Birkedal; Burke, Louise M.; Garthe, Ina; Slater, Gary; Ritz, Christian; Melin, Anna Katarina. 
Screening for Low Energy Availability in Male Athletes: Attempted Validation of LEAM-Q. Nutrients 2022 ;Volum 14.(9) s. –

Sølvberg, Nina; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Rosenvinge, Jan H; Pettersen, Gunn; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn. 
Sexual Harassment and Abuse among Young Elite Athletes, Recreational Athletes, and Reference Students. A Prospective Study. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 2022 s. –

Malnes, Lena Hansen; Haugen, Tommy; Hansen, Bjørge Hermann; Kolle, Elin; Berntsen, Sveinung. 
Establishing the Convergent Validity of the Travel Habit Questions in the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children Questionnaire by Quantifying Active Travel in Norwegian Adolescents. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living 2022 ;Volum 4. s. –

Laxdal, Aron Gauti; Ivarsson, Andreas; Sigurgeirsson, Ólafur; Haugen, Tommy. 
Are the playoffs different from the regular season? A comparison of in-game statistics in Icelandic elite handball. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport 2022 s. –

Laxdal, Aron Gauti; Johansen, Bjørn Tore; Bere, Elling Tufte; Solstad, Bård Erlend. 
Towards More Sustainable Sports: Analyzing the Travel Behavior of Adolescent Soccer Players in Southern Norway. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH)2022 ;Volum 19.(15) s. 1-7

Lindberg, Kolbjørn Andreas; Solberg, Paul Andre; Bjørnsen, Thomas; Helland, Christian; Rønnestad, Bent; Frank, Martin; Haugen, Tommy; Østerås, Sindre; Kristoffersen, Morten; Midttun, Magnus; Sæland, Fredrik; Eythorsdottir, Ingrid; Paulsen, Gøran. 
Strength and Power Testing of Athletes: A Multicenter Study of Test-Retest Reliability. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance (IJSPP) 2022 ;Volum 17.(7) s. 1103-1110


Bentzen, Marte; Hordvik, Mats; Stenersen, Magne Hem; Solstad, Bård Erlend.
A longitudinal transitional perspective on why adolescents choose to quit organized sport in Norway. Psychology of Sport And Exercise 2021 ;Volum 56. s. 1-8

Halvari, Anne E.M.; Ivarsson, Andreas; Halvari, Hallgeir; Olafsen, Anja H.; Solstad, Bård; Niemiec, Christopher P.; Deci, Edward; Williams, Geoffrey.
A prospective study of knowledge sharing at work based on self-determination theory. Scandinavian Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology 2021 ;Volum 6.(1) s. 1-14

Haraldsen, Heidi Marian; Abrahamsen, Frank Eirik; Solstad, Bård Erlend; Halvari, Halgeir.
Narrative Tensions in Strained Junior Elite Performers' Experiences of Becoming Elite Performers. Frontiers in Psychology 2021 ;Volum 12. s. -

Solstad, Bård Erlend; Granerud, Morten; Haraldsen, Heidi Marian; Gustafsson, Henrik; Knight, Camilla J..
An exploration of reciprocity between female athletes and their coach in elite junior swimming: a shared reality theory perspective. Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health 2021 s. -

Stellingwerff, Trent; Heikura, Ida A.; Meeusen, Romain; Bermon, Stéphane; Seiler, Stephen; Mountjoy, Margo; Burke, Louise.
Overtraining Syndrome (OTS) and Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S): Shared Pathways, Symptoms and Complexities. Sports Medicine 2021 ;Volum 51.(11) s. 2251-2280

McGawley, Kerry; Spencer, Matthew; Olofsson, Anna; Andersson, Erik.
Comparing active, passive, and combined warm-ups among junior alpine skiers in -7°C. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance (IJSPP) 2021 ;Volum 16.(8) s. 1140-1147

Taylor, Madison; Almquist, Nicki Winfield; Rønnestad, Bent; Tjønna, Arnt Erik; Kristoffersen, Morten; Spencer, Matthew; Sandbakk, Øyvind; Skovereng, Knut.
The inclusion of sprints in low-intensity sessions during the transition period of elite cyclists improves endurance performance 6 weeks into the subsequent preparatory period. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance (IJSPP) 2021 ;Volum 16.(10) s. 1502-1509

Millet, Gregoire P.; Seiler, Stephen; Millet, Guillaume Y..
Opportunities and obstacles of translating elite sport research to public health. British Journal of Sports Medicine 2021

Maunder, Ed; Seiler, Stephen; Mildenhall, Mathew J.; Kilding, Andrew E.; Plews, DJ.
The Importance of ‘Durability’ in the Physiological Profiling of Endurance Athletes. Sports Medicine 2021 ;Volum 51.(8) s. 1619-1628

Haugen, Thomas André; Sandbakk, Øyvind; Enoksen, Eystein; Seiler, Stephen; Tønnessen, Espen.
Crossing the Golden Training Divide: The Science and Practice of Training World‑Class 800‑ and 1500‑m Runners. Sports Medicine 2021 ;Volum 51. s. 1835-1854

Haugen, Thomas André; Breitschedel, Felix; Wiig, Håvard; Seiler, Stephen.
Countermovement Jump Height in National-Team Athletes of Various Sports: A Framework for Practitioners and Scientists. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance (IJSPP) 2021 ;Volum 16.(2) s. 184-189

Schei, Gaute Sørensen; Haugen, Tommy; Stenling, Andreas; Grøtting, Anniken; Peters, Derek Melville; Høigaard, Rune.
Development and Initial Validation of the Humor Climate in Sport Scale. Frontiers in Psychology 2021 ;Volum 12. s. 1-15

Lindberg, Kolbjørn; Solberg, Paul; Rønnestad, Bent; Frank, Martin; Larsen, Tommy Mella; Abusdal, Gøran; Berntsen, Sveinung; Paulsen, Gøran; Sveen, Ole; Seynnes, Olivier R.; Bjørnsen, Thomas.
Should we individualize training based on force-velocity profiling to improve physical performance in athletes?. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports 2021 ;Volum 31.(12) s. 2198-2210

Lindberg, Kolbjørn Andreas; Solberg, Paul; Bjørnsen, Thomas; Helland, Christian; Rønnestad, Bent; Frank, Martin Thorsen; Haugen, Thomas André; Østerås, Sindre; Kristoffersen, Morten; Midttun, Magnus; Sæland, Fredrik; Paulsen, Gøran.
Force-velocity profiling in athletes: Reliability and agreement across methods. PLOS ONE 2021 ;Volum 16.(2) s. -

Lindberg, Kolbjørn Andreas; Eythorsdottir, Ingrid Eir Thorp; Solberg, Paul Andre; Gløersen, Øyvind Nøstdahl; Seynnes, Olivier R.; Bjørnsen, Thomas; Paulsen, Gøran.
Validity of Force-Velocity Profiling Assessed With a Pneumatic Leg Press Device. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance (IJSPP) 2021 ;Volum 16.(12) s. 1777-1785

Erikstad, Martin K.; Johansen, Bjørn Tore; Johnsen, Marius; Haugen, Tommy; Côté, Jean.
"As many as possible for as long as possible" - A case study of a soccer team that fosters multiple outcomes. The Sport Psychologist 2021 ;Volum 35.(2) s. 131-141

Hovdal, Dag Ove Granås; Haugen, Tommy; Larsen, Inger Beate; Johansen, Bjørn Tore.
“It’s Not Just About the Activity, It’s Also About How the Activity is Facilitated”: Investigating Students’ Experiences in Two Competitive Situations in Physical Education. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research 2021 s. -

Hovdal, Dag Ove Granås; Haugen, Tommy; Larsen, Inger Beate; Johansen, Bjørn Tore.
Students’ experiences and learning of social inclusion in team activities in physical education. European Physical Education Review 2021 ;Volum 27.(4) s. 889-907

Johansen, Bjørn Tore; Brynjulfsen, Trine; Seiler, Hilde Lohne; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Berntsen, Sveinung.
Experiences of Older Adults Preparing for Their First Triathlon: "A Qualitative Study of the Participation in an Endurance Training Intervention. International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being 2021 ;Volum 16.(1) s. –

Johansen, Bjørn Tore; Erikstad, Martin Kjeøen.
A Preliminary Analysis of the Importance of Distance, Angle, and Insight When Soccer Referees Make Penalty Decisions. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living 2021 ;Volum 2. s. -

Sæther, Stig Arve; Nygaard, Anders; Johansen, Bjørn Tore; Erikstad, Martin Kjeøen.
Talentutvikling via studieprogrammet idrettsfag: En retrospektiv studie av unge fotballspilleres opplevelse av å kombinere videregående skole og satsning på en fotballkarriere. Scandinavian Sport Studies Forum 2021 ;Volum 12. s. 85-111

Solhaug, Marius; Høigaard, Rune; Sæther, Stig Arve.
The balancing act of combining school and football in the transition from a non-professional club into junior-elite academy football. Scandinavian Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology (SJSEP) 2021 ;Volum 3. s. 40-46

Gangsø, Kristian S.; Aspvik, Nils Petter; Mehus, Ingar; Høigaard, Rune; Sæther, Stig Arve.
Talent Development Environments in Football: Comparing the Top-Five and Bottom-Five-Ranked Football Academies in Norway. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH) 2021 ;Volum 18.(3) s. –

Haugen, Tommy; Erdvik, Irina Burchard; Laxdal, Aron Gauti; Kloster, Benjamin Wang; Säfvenbom, Reidar.
Forholdet mellom elevers motivasjon for kroppsøvingsfaget, motivasjonsklima og tilhørighet i kroppsøvingstimene, og deres intensjon om å være fysisk aktive etter endt obligatorisk skolegang. Journal for Research in Arts and Sports Education 2021 ;Volum 5.(3) s. 65-85

Haugen, Tommy; Peters, Derek Melville; Ommundsen, Yngvar; Martin, Luc J.; Stenling, Andreas; Høigaard, Rune.
Psychometric Evaluation of the Norwegian Versions of the Modified Group Environment Questionnaire and the Youth Sport Environment Questionnaire. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science 2021 ;Volum 25.(4) s. 365-378

Åvitsland, Andreas; Leibinger, Eva; Kolle, Elin; Haugen, Tommy; Dyrstad, Sindre Mikal.
Associations between changes in physical fitness and psychological difficulties status among Norwegian adolescents. Mental Health and Physical Activity 2021 ;Volum 21. s. -

Erikstad, Martin Kjeøen; Høigaard, Rune; Côté, Jean; Turnnidge, Jennifer; Haugen, Tommy.
An Examination of the Relationship Between Coaches’ Transformational Leadership and Athletes’ Personal and Group Characteristics in Elite Youth Soccer. Frontiers in Psychology 2021 ;Volum 12. s. -

Svantorp-Tveiten, Kethe Marie Engen; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Rosenvinge, Jan H; Sundgot-Borgen, Christine; Friborg, Oddgeir; Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Pettersen, Gunn; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn.
Effect of A Healthy Body Image intervention on risk- and protective factors for eating disorders: A cluster randomized controlled trial. Mental health & prevention 2021 ;Volum 24. s. -

Svantorp-Tveiten, Kethe Marie Engen; Friborg, Oddgeir; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Mathisen, Therese Fostervold; Sundgot-Borgen, Christine; Rosenvinge, Jan H; Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Pettersen, Gunn; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn.
Protein, creatine and dieting supplements among adolescents: Use and associations with eating disorder risk factors, exercise- and sports participation, and immigrant status. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living 2021 ;Volum 3. s. -

Sundgot-Borgen, Christine; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Kolle, Elin; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Svantorp-Tveiten, Kethe Marie Engen; Mathisen, Therese Fostervold.
Body appreciation and body appearance pressure in Norwegian university students comparing exercise science students and other students. BMC Public Health 2021 ;Volum 21. s. -

Stenqvist, Thomas Birkedal; Melin, Anna Katarina; Garthe, Ina; Slater, Gary; Paulsen, Gøran; Iraki, Juma; Areta, José Lisandro; Torstveit, Monica Klungland.
Prevalence of Surrogate Markers of Relative Energy Deficiency in Male Norwegian Olympic-Level Athletes. International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism 2021 ;Volum 31.(6) s. 497-506

Bjørnarå, Helga Birgit; Westergren, Thomas; Sejersted, Ellen; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Hansen, Bjørge Hermann; Berntsen, Sveinung; Bere, Elling Tufte.
Does organized sports participation in childhood and adolescence positively influence health? A review of reviews. Preventive Medicine Reports 2021 ;Volum 23. s. -

Vårvik, Fredrik Tonstad; Bjørnsen, Thomas; Gonzalez, Adam.
Acute Effect of Citrulline Malate on Repetition Performance During Strength Training: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism 2021 ;Volum 31.(4) s. 350-358

Research collaboration

Information coming