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The interdisciplinary Sports Performance and Athlete Development Environments (SPADE) research group will strive to develop and maintain a continuous research portfolio with strong international impact connected to the following missions:

Research Excellence: Conduct nationally and internationally recognized research with high impact focusing on:

  • Developing continuous, longitudinal data capture programs with our talent development partners regionally and nationally
  • Integration of methodological approaches, qualitative and quantitative, descriptive and experimental, to better understand complex aspects of athlete development environments
  • Maximizing ecological and external validity by closely interacting with developmental environments when developing research initiatives

Ongoing projects

Information coming

Selected publications


Byrkjedal, Per Thomas; Luteberget, Live; Bjørnsen, Thomas; Ivarsson, Andreas; Spencer, Matthew.
Simulated Game-Based Ice Hockey Match Design (Scrimmage) Elicits Greater Intensity in External Load Parameters Compared With Official Matches. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living 2022 ;Volum 4. s. -

Halvari, Anne Elisabeth M.; Ivarsson, Andreas; Halvari, Halgeir; Dahl, Kari Elisabeth; Olafsen, Anja Hagen; Solstad, Bård Erlend; Deci, Edward; Williams, Geoffrey Colin.
Dental hygienists’ biopsychosocial beliefs and giving autonomy support in treatment of patients: A self-determination theory perspective. International Journal of Dental Hygiene 2022 ;Volum 20.(2) s. 193-202

Haugen, Tommy; Sandbakk, Øyvind; Seiler, Stephen; Tønnessen, Espen.
The Training Characteristics of World-Class Distance Runners: An Integration of Scientific Literature and Results-Proven Practice. Sports Medicine - Open 2022 ;Volum 8.(1) s. 1-18

Schei, Gaute Sørensen; Haugen, Tommy; Jones, Gareth; Sæther, Stig Arve; Høigaard, Rune.
A Qualitative Exploration of Collective Collapse in a Norwegian Qualifying Premier League Soccer Match—The Successful Team's Perspective. Frontiers in Psychology 2022 ;Volum 12. s. -

Lindberg, Kolbjørn Andreas; Lohne-Seiler, Hilde; Fosstveit, Sindre Herskedal; Sibayan, Erlend E.; Fjeller, Joachim S.; Løvold, Sondre; Kolnes, Tommy; Vårvik, Fredrik Tonstad; Berntsen, Sveinung; Paulsen, Gøran; Seynnes, Olivier R.; Bjørnsen, Thomas.
Effectiveness of individualized training based on force–velocity profiling on physical function in older men. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports 2022 s. -

Giske, Rune; Gjerde, Joar; Høigaard, Rune; Johansen, Bjørn Tore.
Shared Mental Models: National Representative Coaches’ Thinking on Importance, Characteristics, and Development. Journal of Expertise 2022 ;Volum 5(1). s. 12-28

Hem, Marchus; Fuhre, Jan; Høigaard, Rune; Sæther, Stig Arve.
Talent development abroad. Young football players’ experiences and challenges on being recruited to English academies. Soccer and Society 2022

Sundgot-Borgen, Christine; Mathisen, Therese Fostervold; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn.
Explanations for use of dietary- and muscle enhancing dietary supplements among university students. A national cross-sectional study.. BMC Nutrition 2022

Svantorp-Tveiten, Kethe M.E.; Ivarsson, Andreas; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Sundgot-Borgen, Christine; Mathisen, Therese Fostervold; Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Rosenvinge, Jan H; Friborg, Oddgeir; Pettersen, Gunn; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn.
The Healthy Body Image intervention and reduction in eating disorder symptomatology and muscle building supplement use in high school students: a study of mediating factors. Frontiers in Psychology 2022

Henselmans, Menno; Bjørnsen, Thomas; Hedderman, Richie; Vårvik, Fredrik Tonstad.
The Effect of Carbohydrate Intake on Strength and Resistance Training Performance: A Systematic Review. Nutrients 2022

Bjørnsen, Thomas; Wernbom, Mathias; Paulsen, Gøran; Berntsen, Sveinung; Brankovic, Robert; Stålesen, Håkon; Sundnes, Joakim; Raastad, Truls.
Frequent blood flow restricted training not to failure and to failure induces similar gains in myonuclei and muscle mass. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports 2021 ;Volum 31.(7) s. 1420-1439

Bjørnsen, Thomas; Wernbom, Mathias; Paulsen, Gøran; Markworth, James F.; Berntsen, Sveinung; D'Souza, Randall F.; Cameron-Smith, David; Raastad, Truls.
High-frequency blood flow-restricted resistance exercise results in acute and prolonged cellular stress more pronounced in type I than in type II fibers. Journal of applied physiology 2021 ;Volum 131.(2) s. 643-660

Wiig, Håvard; Cumming, Kristoffer Toldnes; Handegard, Vilde; Stabell Hansen, Jostein; Spencer, Matthew; Raastad, Truls. 
Muscular heat shock protein response and muscle damage after semi-professional football match. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports 2022 ;Volum 32.(6) s. 984-996

Ausland, Ådne; Sandberg, Edvard Liljedahl; Jortveit, Jarle; Seiler, Stephen. 
Heart rhythm assessment in elite endurance athletes: A better method?. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living 2022 ;Volum 4. s. 1-9

Foster, Carl; Barroso, Renato; Beneke, Ralph; Bok, Daniel; Boullosa, Daniel; Casado, Arturo; Chamari, Karim; Cortis, Cristina; De Koning, Jos; Fusco, Andrea; Haugen, Thomas André; Lucia, Alejandro; Mujika, Inigo; Pyne, David; Rodriguez-Marroyo, Jose A.; Sandbakk, Øyvind; Seiler, Stephen. 
How to Succeed as an Athlete: What We Know, What We Need to Know. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance (IJSPP) 2022 ;Volum 17.(3) s. 333-334

Foster, Carl; Casado, Arturo; Esteve-Lanao, Jonathan; Haugen, Tommy; Seiler, Stephen. 
Polarized Training Is Optimal for Endurance Athletes. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 2022 ;Volum 54.(6) s. 1028-1031

Fahrenholtz, Ida Lysdahl; Melin, Anna Katarina; Wasserfurth, Paulina; Stenling, Andreas; Logue, Danielle; Garthe, Ina; Koehler, Karsten; Gräfnings, Maria; Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Madigan, Sharon; Torstveit, Monica Klungland. 
Risk of Low Energy Availability, Disordered Eating, Exercise Addiction, and Food Intolerances in Female Endurance Athletes. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living 2022 ;Volum 4. s. –

Lundy, Bronwen; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Stenqvist, Thomas Birkedal; Burke, Louise M.; Garthe, Ina; Slater, Gary; Ritz, Christian; Melin, Anna Katarina. 
Screening for Low Energy Availability in Male Athletes: Attempted Validation of LEAM-Q. Nutrients 2022 ;Volum 14.(9) s. –

Sølvberg, Nina; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Rosenvinge, Jan H; Pettersen, Gunn; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn. 
Sexual Harassment and Abuse among Young Elite Athletes, Recreational Athletes, and Reference Students. A Prospective Study. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 2022 s. –

Malnes, Lena Hansen; Haugen, Tommy; Hansen, Bjørge Hermann; Kolle, Elin; Berntsen, Sveinung. 
Establishing the Convergent Validity of the Travel Habit Questions in the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children Questionnaire by Quantifying Active Travel in Norwegian Adolescents. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living 2022 ;Volum 4. s. –

Laxdal, Aron Gauti; Ivarsson, Andreas; Sigurgeirsson, Ólafur; Haugen, Tommy. 
Are the playoffs different from the regular season? A comparison of in-game statistics in Icelandic elite handball. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport 2022 s. –

Laxdal, Aron Gauti; Johansen, Bjørn Tore; Bere, Elling Tufte; Solstad, Bård Erlend. 
Towards More Sustainable Sports: Analyzing the Travel Behavior of Adolescent Soccer Players in Southern Norway. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH)2022 ;Volum 19.(15) s. 1-7

Lindberg, Kolbjørn Andreas; Solberg, Paul Andre; Bjørnsen, Thomas; Helland, Christian; Rønnestad, Bent; Frank, Martin; Haugen, Tommy; Østerås, Sindre; Kristoffersen, Morten; Midttun, Magnus; Sæland, Fredrik; Eythorsdottir, Ingrid; Paulsen, Gøran. 
Strength and Power Testing of Athletes: A Multicenter Study of Test-Retest Reliability. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance (IJSPP) 2022 ;Volum 17.(7) s. 1103-1110


Bentzen, Marte; Hordvik, Mats; Stenersen, Magne Hem; Solstad, Bård Erlend.
A longitudinal transitional perspective on why adolescents choose to quit organized sport in Norway. Psychology of Sport And Exercise 2021 ;Volum 56. s. 1-8

Halvari, Anne E.M.; Ivarsson, Andreas; Halvari, Hallgeir; Olafsen, Anja H.; Solstad, Bård; Niemiec, Christopher P.; Deci, Edward; Williams, Geoffrey.
A prospective study of knowledge sharing at work based on self-determination theory. Scandinavian Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology 2021 ;Volum 6.(1) s. 1-14

Haraldsen, Heidi Marian; Abrahamsen, Frank Eirik; Solstad, Bård Erlend; Halvari, Halgeir.
Narrative Tensions in Strained Junior Elite Performers' Experiences of Becoming Elite Performers. Frontiers in Psychology 2021 ;Volum 12. s. -

Solstad, Bård Erlend; Granerud, Morten; Haraldsen, Heidi Marian; Gustafsson, Henrik; Knight, Camilla J..
An exploration of reciprocity between female athletes and their coach in elite junior swimming: a shared reality theory perspective. Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health 2021 s. -

Stellingwerff, Trent; Heikura, Ida A.; Meeusen, Romain; Bermon, Stéphane; Seiler, Stephen; Mountjoy, Margo; Burke, Louise.
Overtraining Syndrome (OTS) and Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S): Shared Pathways, Symptoms and Complexities. Sports Medicine 2021 ;Volum 51.(11) s. 2251-2280

McGawley, Kerry; Spencer, Matthew; Olofsson, Anna; Andersson, Erik.
Comparing active, passive, and combined warm-ups among junior alpine skiers in -7°C. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance (IJSPP) 2021 ;Volum 16.(8) s. 1140-1147

Taylor, Madison; Almquist, Nicki Winfield; Rønnestad, Bent; Tjønna, Arnt Erik; Kristoffersen, Morten; Spencer, Matthew; Sandbakk, Øyvind; Skovereng, Knut.
The inclusion of sprints in low-intensity sessions during the transition period of elite cyclists improves endurance performance 6 weeks into the subsequent preparatory period. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance (IJSPP) 2021 ;Volum 16.(10) s. 1502-1509

Millet, Gregoire P.; Seiler, Stephen; Millet, Guillaume Y..
Opportunities and obstacles of translating elite sport research to public health. British Journal of Sports Medicine 2021

Maunder, Ed; Seiler, Stephen; Mildenhall, Mathew J.; Kilding, Andrew E.; Plews, DJ.
The Importance of ‘Durability’ in the Physiological Profiling of Endurance Athletes. Sports Medicine 2021 ;Volum 51.(8) s. 1619-1628

Haugen, Thomas André; Sandbakk, Øyvind; Enoksen, Eystein; Seiler, Stephen; Tønnessen, Espen.
Crossing the Golden Training Divide: The Science and Practice of Training World‑Class 800‑ and 1500‑m Runners. Sports Medicine 2021 ;Volum 51. s. 1835-1854

Haugen, Thomas André; Breitschedel, Felix; Wiig, Håvard; Seiler, Stephen.
Countermovement Jump Height in National-Team Athletes of Various Sports: A Framework for Practitioners and Scientists. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance (IJSPP) 2021 ;Volum 16.(2) s. 184-189

Schei, Gaute Sørensen; Haugen, Tommy; Stenling, Andreas; Grøtting, Anniken; Peters, Derek Melville; Høigaard, Rune.
Development and Initial Validation of the Humor Climate in Sport Scale. Frontiers in Psychology 2021 ;Volum 12. s. 1-15

Lindberg, Kolbjørn; Solberg, Paul; Rønnestad, Bent; Frank, Martin; Larsen, Tommy Mella; Abusdal, Gøran; Berntsen, Sveinung; Paulsen, Gøran; Sveen, Ole; Seynnes, Olivier R.; Bjørnsen, Thomas.
Should we individualize training based on force-velocity profiling to improve physical performance in athletes?. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports 2021 ;Volum 31.(12) s. 2198-2210

Lindberg, Kolbjørn Andreas; Solberg, Paul; Bjørnsen, Thomas; Helland, Christian; Rønnestad, Bent; Frank, Martin Thorsen; Haugen, Thomas André; Østerås, Sindre; Kristoffersen, Morten; Midttun, Magnus; Sæland, Fredrik; Paulsen, Gøran.
Force-velocity profiling in athletes: Reliability and agreement across methods. PLOS ONE 2021 ;Volum 16.(2) s. -

Lindberg, Kolbjørn Andreas; Eythorsdottir, Ingrid Eir Thorp; Solberg, Paul Andre; Gløersen, Øyvind Nøstdahl; Seynnes, Olivier R.; Bjørnsen, Thomas; Paulsen, Gøran.
Validity of Force-Velocity Profiling Assessed With a Pneumatic Leg Press Device. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance (IJSPP) 2021 ;Volum 16.(12) s. 1777-1785

Erikstad, Martin K.; Johansen, Bjørn Tore; Johnsen, Marius; Haugen, Tommy; Côté, Jean.
"As many as possible for as long as possible" - A case study of a soccer team that fosters multiple outcomes. The Sport Psychologist 2021 ;Volum 35.(2) s. 131-141

Hovdal, Dag Ove Granås; Haugen, Tommy; Larsen, Inger Beate; Johansen, Bjørn Tore.
“It’s Not Just About the Activity, It’s Also About How the Activity is Facilitated”: Investigating Students’ Experiences in Two Competitive Situations in Physical Education. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research 2021 s. -

Hovdal, Dag Ove Granås; Haugen, Tommy; Larsen, Inger Beate; Johansen, Bjørn Tore.
Students’ experiences and learning of social inclusion in team activities in physical education. European Physical Education Review 2021 ;Volum 27.(4) s. 889-907

Johansen, Bjørn Tore; Brynjulfsen, Trine; Seiler, Hilde Lohne; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Berntsen, Sveinung.
Experiences of Older Adults Preparing for Their First Triathlon: "A Qualitative Study of the Participation in an Endurance Training Intervention. International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being 2021 ;Volum 16.(1) s. –

Johansen, Bjørn Tore; Erikstad, Martin Kjeøen.
A Preliminary Analysis of the Importance of Distance, Angle, and Insight When Soccer Referees Make Penalty Decisions. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living 2021 ;Volum 2. s. -

Sæther, Stig Arve; Nygaard, Anders; Johansen, Bjørn Tore; Erikstad, Martin Kjeøen.
Talentutvikling via studieprogrammet idrettsfag: En retrospektiv studie av unge fotballspilleres opplevelse av å kombinere videregående skole og satsning på en fotballkarriere. Scandinavian Sport Studies Forum 2021 ;Volum 12. s. 85-111

Solhaug, Marius; Høigaard, Rune; Sæther, Stig Arve.
The balancing act of combining school and football in the transition from a non-professional club into junior-elite academy football. Scandinavian Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology (SJSEP) 2021 ;Volum 3. s. 40-46

Gangsø, Kristian S.; Aspvik, Nils Petter; Mehus, Ingar; Høigaard, Rune; Sæther, Stig Arve.
Talent Development Environments in Football: Comparing the Top-Five and Bottom-Five-Ranked Football Academies in Norway. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH) 2021 ;Volum 18.(3) s. –

Haugen, Tommy; Erdvik, Irina Burchard; Laxdal, Aron Gauti; Kloster, Benjamin Wang; Säfvenbom, Reidar.
Forholdet mellom elevers motivasjon for kroppsøvingsfaget, motivasjonsklima og tilhørighet i kroppsøvingstimene, og deres intensjon om å være fysisk aktive etter endt obligatorisk skolegang. Journal for Research in Arts and Sports Education 2021 ;Volum 5.(3) s. 65-85

Haugen, Tommy; Peters, Derek Melville; Ommundsen, Yngvar; Martin, Luc J.; Stenling, Andreas; Høigaard, Rune.
Psychometric Evaluation of the Norwegian Versions of the Modified Group Environment Questionnaire and the Youth Sport Environment Questionnaire. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science 2021 ;Volum 25.(4) s. 365-378

Åvitsland, Andreas; Leibinger, Eva; Kolle, Elin; Haugen, Tommy; Dyrstad, Sindre Mikal.
Associations between changes in physical fitness and psychological difficulties status among Norwegian adolescents. Mental Health and Physical Activity 2021 ;Volum 21. s. -

Erikstad, Martin Kjeøen; Høigaard, Rune; Côté, Jean; Turnnidge, Jennifer; Haugen, Tommy.
An Examination of the Relationship Between Coaches’ Transformational Leadership and Athletes’ Personal and Group Characteristics in Elite Youth Soccer. Frontiers in Psychology 2021 ;Volum 12. s. -

Svantorp-Tveiten, Kethe Marie Engen; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Rosenvinge, Jan H; Sundgot-Borgen, Christine; Friborg, Oddgeir; Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Pettersen, Gunn; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn.
Effect of A Healthy Body Image intervention on risk- and protective factors for eating disorders: A cluster randomized controlled trial. Mental health & prevention 2021 ;Volum 24. s. -

Svantorp-Tveiten, Kethe Marie Engen; Friborg, Oddgeir; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Mathisen, Therese Fostervold; Sundgot-Borgen, Christine; Rosenvinge, Jan H; Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Pettersen, Gunn; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn.
Protein, creatine and dieting supplements among adolescents: Use and associations with eating disorder risk factors, exercise- and sports participation, and immigrant status. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living 2021 ;Volum 3. s. -

Sundgot-Borgen, Christine; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Kolle, Elin; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Svantorp-Tveiten, Kethe Marie Engen; Mathisen, Therese Fostervold.
Body appreciation and body appearance pressure in Norwegian university students comparing exercise science students and other students. BMC Public Health 2021 ;Volum 21. s. -

Stenqvist, Thomas Birkedal; Melin, Anna Katarina; Garthe, Ina; Slater, Gary; Paulsen, Gøran; Iraki, Juma; Areta, José Lisandro; Torstveit, Monica Klungland.
Prevalence of Surrogate Markers of Relative Energy Deficiency in Male Norwegian Olympic-Level Athletes. International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism 2021 ;Volum 31.(6) s. 497-506

Bjørnarå, Helga Birgit; Westergren, Thomas; Sejersted, Ellen; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Hansen, Bjørge Hermann; Berntsen, Sveinung; Bere, Elling Tufte.
Does organized sports participation in childhood and adolescence positively influence health? A review of reviews. Preventive Medicine Reports 2021 ;Volum 23. s. -

Vårvik, Fredrik Tonstad; Bjørnsen, Thomas; Gonzalez, Adam.
Acute Effect of Citrulline Malate on Repetition Performance During Strength Training: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism 2021 ;Volum 31.(4) s. 350-358

Research collaboration

Information coming