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ASEAN and the EU in times of crises: Critical junctures from the perspective of comparative regionalism


Uwe Wunderlich and Stefan Gänzle


Why do similar crises often trigger different outcomes in various organisations of regional integration? Drawing from critical juncture research and historical comparative analysis, this chapter distinguishes between the endogenous and exogenous factors determining the scope and depth of regional integration; using ASEAN and the EU as case studies, it focuses on the role of hegemonic states, institutional environments, and ‘integration ideas’ while examining how these regional organisations have responded to major external economic crises. The chapter shows that, in addition to the depth of regional integration, it is the role and attitude of external hegemonic states, such as the United States, vis-à-vis the regional ones which is of paramount importance.