There are various systems for citing sources within the text (referencing).
You can use parentheses where you provide the author's last name and year of publication (Harvard system), or you can provide a numerical reference in the text that refers to a footnote or endnote which provides the same information. Footnotes appear at the bottom of each page while endnotes appear at the end of each chapter or collected at the end of the assignment (but before the bibliography).
Example of author / year of publication in parentheses
Students don't always see the importance of citing all the sources used in a written assignment. ”Serious academic literature authors use sources, and they cite the sources they have used” (Spangen, 2007, p. 9). This is just as important when writing a semester assignment as when writing a dissertation.
Example of a numerical reference
Students don't always see the importance of citing all the sources used in a written assignment. ”Serious academic literature authors use sources, and they cite the sources they have used” 1 This is just as important when writing a semester assignment as when writing a dissertation.
1) Spangen, 2007, p. 9
When you cite sources within your text, you should place it at the end of the passage that contains information from the source. This will often be at the end of a paragraph, but the reference can also be placed at the end of a sentence. If you are using parentheses, these are placed before the period. If you are using numerical references to footnotes or endnotes, the number is placed after the period.
As a student of UiA, you are obligated to learn the rules that apply to how to cite sources of various types in the written work you submit for evaluation. In return, it is your department's obligation to give you the guidance you need to feel secure that you are following sound and acceptable practice in terms of citing of sources. Ask your advisor if you are in doubt.
What counts as cheating?
If you fail to provide the sources of texts taken from literature, articles, or the Internet in a written assignment (home examination or mandatory written assignment), you are committing plagiarism. Plagiarism is cheating. Read more about the consequences of cheating
«The Citation Compass» gives you an overview of both styles of reference and of how to relate critically to different kinds of sources.