A written homework assignment is the student's own independent work. This means that you must be able to use the material to develop your thesis and produce the text in your own words.
Information and elements you have taken from sources will therefore be woven into the text, with sources being cited using the system you have chosen to follow (see citing sources).
Sometimes it is appropriate to quote or summarize a paragraph or section from a source. Short paragraphs can be quoted directly, indirectly, summarized or reproduced in the form of a résumé:
is a word-for-word reproduction of an expression or a section of a text. The quotation should be clearly separated from the rest of the text, so that the reader can see where the quotation begins and ends. Short quotations can be separated from the rest of the text with an extra line of space before and after and/or by using indentation. You choose to use a direct quotation when it is important that the source's choice of words and tone is conveyed, but this technique should be used in moderation in a written assignment.
Students do not always see the importance of citing all sources in written work. ”Serious academic literature authors use sources, and they cite the sources they use" (Spangen, 2007, p. 9). This is just as important when writing a semester assignment as when writing a scientific dissertation.
When using direct quotations, you should always cite which page(s) you are referring to.
is a reproduction of the meaning of an expression or a section from a source formulated in your own words. This way, you achieve better flow in your text. It is important that you choose your words so that you retain the original meaning. It is good practice to also provide page numbers when quoting indirectly.
Students do not always see the importance of citing all sources in written work. All of the sources you use in written work must be provided if you are to be perceived of as a serious academic author (Spangen, 2007, p. 9). This is just as important when writing a semester assignment as when writing a scientific dissertation.
is a short summary from a source or a section which you write in your own words. This technique is used when it is appropriate to provide a more comprehensive reproduction of the content of a particular academic text, or when you are summarizing the content of a novel or film. You must evaluation what is relevant for your assignment, and select the parts of the source's content that you want to cite. The summary should only contain the main elements. It is important that you are aware of your choice of words, so that you are loyal to the source and are not in danger of distorting its meaning.
In her book, Spangen (2007) provides the necessary knowledge regarding the most central aspects of referencing and writing bibliographies. From first explaining the structure of a written assignment and what the various parts should contain, one becomes familiar with the citing and referencing techniques one needs to master in order to give the assignment the quality characteristic of an academic work. Especially thorough is the section on quoting original text, and the different issues that you encounter during the writing process. The author starts with the Harvard system in his explanation of the various ways one can refer to works of different character. Finally, Spangen examines the creation of literature lists, where she uses her own work as examples.
As a student of UiA, you are obligated to learn the rules that apply to how to cite sources of various types in the written work you submit for evaluation. In return, it is your department's obligation to give you the guidance you need to feel secure that you are following sound and acceptable practice in terms of citing of sources. Ask your advisor if you are in doubt.
What counts as cheating?
If you fail to provide the sources of texts taken from literature, articles, or the Internet in a written assignment (home examination or mandatory written assignment), you are committing plagiarism. Plagiarism is cheating. Read more about the consequences of cheating
«The Citation Compass» gives you an overview of both styles of reference and of how to relate critically to different kinds of sources.